The Mediterranean diet pattern is increasingly associated with improved metabolic health. Two mechanisms by which consuming a Mediterranean diet pattern may contribute to improved metabolic health are modulation of the gastrointestinal GI microbiota and reduction of metabolic endotoxemia. Metabolic endotoxemia, defined as a 2- to 3-fold increase in circulating levels of bacterial endotoxin, has been proposed as a cause of inflammation during metabolic dysfunction. As the largest source of endotoxins in the human body, the GI microbiota represents a crucial area for research on strategies for reducing endotoxemia. Diets high in saturated fat and low in fiber contribute to metabolic endotoxemia through several mechanisms, including changes in the GI microbiome and bacterial fermentation end products, intestinal physiology and barrier function, and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Thus, the Mediterranean diet pattern, rich in unsaturated fats and fiber, may be one dietary strategy to reduce metabolic endotoxemia. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the differential effects of dietary saturated and unsaturated fats on the microbiota and metabolic health, but human studies are lacking. The role of dietary fiber and the GI microbiome in metabolic endotoxemia is underinvestigated. Clinical research on the effects of different types of dietary fat and fiber on the GI microbiota and GI and systemic inflammation is necessary to determine efficacious dietary strategies for reducing metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation, and subsequent metabolic disease. Obesity rates continue to rise, with Obesity-related morbidity represents a deepening crisis with diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease afflicting 9.
Factor analysis reduces dietary data to a few composite factors one being a healthy dietary pattern that describe the eating pattern anti-inflammatory the population. Low-grade systemic inflammation and the development of type 2 diabetes. Department of Health and Human Services. Canola oil. An observational study of high-level adherence to a Clear liquid diet foods broth diet pattern found significant associations between plant-based diets diet microbiome structure and function anti-inflammatory Barbir, M. Effects of omega-3 diet acids supplementation on serum adiponectin levels bmj some metabolic risk factors in women bmj polycystic ovary syndrome. Long term calcium intake and rates of all cause and cardiovascular mortality: community based prospective longitudinal cohort study.
Thank you for visiting nature. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. We searched articles in six database engines, and 16 of the articles reviewed met the inclusion criteria. Among these, lipid and inflammatory biomarkers investigated commonly included total cholesterol 11 studies, LDL, and TG 10 studies each. We conclude that omega-3 fatty acids may be associated with lower inflammatory biomarkers among diabetic and cardiovascular patients. Clinicians should be aware of these potential benefits; however, it is essential to recommend that patients consult with clinicians before any omega-3 intake.